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Grapevine red blotch disease threatens US Grape industry

Grapevine red blotch disease threatens US Grape industry

$3 million grant awarded to study causes, impact of grapevine virus

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Credit: Raul Girardello/UC Davis


University of California, Davis, scientists will lead a collaborative effort to study grapevine red blotch disease, which threatens the $162 billion U.S. grape industry. The virus causes red veins and blotches on grape leaves. The fruit on diseased plants is smaller, ripens more slowly, and its sugars and colors are muted.

“The virus affects both white and red grape varieties and can have a significant impact on wine quality,” said Anita Oberholster, cooperative extension specialist in the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology and the project director for the research. First noticed in 2007 at the UC Davis Oakville research station, the virus wasn’t identified until 2012, and much remains unknown about its causes or ways to manage it. Currently, the only treatment is to remove the entire vine.

In 2016, Frank Zalom, a UC Davis professor of entomology and nematology, and collaborators discovered the three-cornered alfalfa hopper was a vector of red blotch, but it may not be the only one. The disease has been detected in California, Oregon and New York.

The $3 million USDA-NIFA grant will allow UC Davis, UC Berkeley and Oregon State University researchers to examine the spread of the disease, potential vectors and assess its economic impact on grape production and wine quality.

“Red blotch is a huge new problem for the grape industry, and this is the first large government grant to study it,” said Oberholster. “We will be working in partnership to take the first steps to understand the disease and develop sustainable management practices to support the grape industry.”

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Media Contact
Amy Quinton
amquinton@ucdavis.edu
530-752-9843

Original Source

http://www.ucdavis.edu/news/grapevine-red-blotch-disease-threatens-us-grape-industry

Source: New feed

Study: EMC2 tools improved safe dosing of opioids but had no influence on actual use

Study: EMC2 tools improved safe dosing of opioids but had no influence on actual use

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Credit: KIRSTY CHALLEN, B.SC., MBCHB, MRES, PH.D., LANCASHIRE TEACHING HOSPITALS, UNITED KINGDOM


DES PLAINES, IL — A study to evaluate the effect of an Electronic Medication Complete Communication (EMC2) Opioid Strategy on patients’ safe use of and knowledge about opioids found that the EMC2 tools improved demonstrated safe dosing, but these benefits did not translate into actual use based on medication dairies. The study findings are published in the December 2019 issue of Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM), a journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM).

The lead author of the study is Danielle M. McCarthy MD, MS, vice chair for research in the department of emergency medicine and associate professor of emergency medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

The investigators implemented the best practices effort of “take, stop, wait” prescribing language, together with the added boost of text messaging, to educate patients on how to reduce overuse of opioids. Intervention improved demonstrated safe dosing of opioids, and the text-messaging intervention resulted in improved patient knowledge, however there was no influence of the intervention on actual safe medication use among the portion of the sample returning medication diaries.

The findings support the notion that possessing knowledge about medication risks is likely necessary but not sufficient to ensure safe use, as medication-taking behaviors are often influenced by complex factors (e.g. health literacy, self-efficacy, and attitudes) in addition to knowledge.

The authors suggest that future emergency department interventions may opt to focus on post-discharge communication as the greatest increases in knowledge in this sample were among patients receiving the text-messaging portion of the intervention.

Jason Haukoos, MD, professor of emergency medicine and director of emergency medicine research at the University of Colorado School of Medicine Anschutz Medical Campus, commented:

“The work performed by this investigative team as part of the ED EMC2 pragmatic clinical trial advances our thinking about best practices of opioid prescribing from the emergency department. Critical to combating the opioid epidemic, integration of an electronic multi-faceted intervention aimed at physicians, pharmacists, and patients, as studied in this trial, may improve the safe use of opioids. Although challenged by the single centered approach, the results are compelling and should now be extended as part of a larger, multi-centered initiative.”

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ABOUT ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Academic Emergency Medicine, the monthly journal of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, features the best in peer-reviewed, cutting-edge original research relevant to the practice and investigation of emergency care. The above study is published open access and can be downloaded by following the DOI link: 10.1111/acem.13860. Journalists wishing to interview the authors may contact Stacey Roseen at sroseen@saem.org.

ABOUT THE SOCIETY FOR ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE

SAEM is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization dedicated to the improvement of care of the acutely ill and injured patient by leading the advancement of academic emergency medicine through education and research, advocacy, and professional development. To learn more, visit saem.org.

Media Contact
Stacey Roseen
sroseen@saem.org
708-606-7120

Related Journal Article

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13860

Source: New feed

Yeasts derived from food can reduce multi-drug resistant fungal infections

Yeasts derived from food can reduce multi-drug resistant fungal infections
A study by researchers in the United States and India has shown that probiotic yeasts derived from food are able to reduce the virulence of, and even prevent infections by, several types of fungi that are responsible for life-threatening infections in hospitalized and immune-compromised individuals, including the multi-drug resistant Candida auris, which was recently listed as an urgent threat by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in its 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats report.

Source: News Medical

After Phase III Failure, UK Firm Pushes Placebo to Treat Erectile Dysfunction

After Phase III Failure, UK Firm Pushes Placebo to Treat Erectile Dysfunction

The strong placebo effect seen in Futura Medical’s phase III trial in erectile dysfunction has not deterred the company, but has instead encouraged it to seek approval for its medical device delivering the placebo rather than the drug as originally intended.  

Based in Surrey, UK, Futura Medical is developing a medical device used to deliver drugs through the skin. The device was being tested in a phase III trial as a method to deliver a vasodilator drug with the intention of treating erectile dysfunction with a much faster onset and fewer side effects than currently available options. 

The treatment resulted in a meaningful improvement for the participants in more than 60% of the cases, without any serious side effects. In addition, over 60% of them saw an effect within 10 minutes, whereas drugs such as Viagra have an average onset time of around 30 minutes.

However, when the device was used to deliver a placebo with the same formulation but no drug, it proved equally effective. 

Rather than a failure, Futura Medical has seen an opportunity in these results. The company has stated that the study provides strong clinical proof to seek approval for the medical device without including the vasodilator drug. This could make the regulatory process simpler and faster, and make the treatment suitable for people that cannot take this drug. 

Futura Medical has thus decided to file a new patent application expecting to extend the protection of the device until 2039. 

The company has had a complicated past, with major players such as Durex and GSK having walked out of past deals. Now, the success of its treatment for erectile dysfunction might be essential for the company to be able to secure the necessary funding to keep going forward.  

“Sometimes science gives you unexpected results but creates new opportunities,” said Ken James, Head of R&D at Futura Medical, during a webcast held this morning.

The post After Phase III Failure, UK Firm Pushes Placebo to Treat Erectile Dysfunction appeared first on Labiotech.eu.

Source: Labiotech

ObsEva’s Oral Treatment for Uterine Fibroids Nails Phase III

ObsEva’s Oral Treatment for Uterine Fibroids Nails Phase III

An oral drug developed by the Swiss company ObsEva was shown to reduce menstrual bleeding and pain caused by uterine fibroids.

The phase III trial tested ObsEva’s drug candidate linzagolix in 535 women suffering from heavy menstrual bleeding caused by benign tumors in the uterus called uterine fibroids. The effects of the drug were compared to those of a placebo both with and without hormonal add-back therapy, which is used to prevent hot flashes, a common side effect of uterine fibroid medication.

After six months of taking linzagolix once per day, 94% of patients given the highest dose of the drug with hormonal add-back therapy had reduced their menstrual bleeding by half, compared to just 29% of those receiving a placebo. Patients also experienced significantly less pain and a better quality of life than those taking the placebo.

Linzagolix blocks the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which is involved in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. This mechanism of action is designed to avoid an initial flaring of symptoms caused by currently available drugs to treat uterine fibroids. In addition, the drug candidate can be given orally instead of through injection.

ObsEva is also running a phase III trial of the same drug in the US, with results expected in mid-2020. If all goes to plan, ObsEva aims to apply for market approval in the EU by the end of 2020.  

At present, there is another competitor drug treatment for uterine fibroids in phase III trials. This is relugolix, developed by the UK company Myovant. Like linzagolix, Myovant’s drug is an oral blocker of gonadotropin-releasing hormone given once per day. It produced positive results in a phase III trial for the treatment of uterine fibroids earlier this year, and Myovant expects to apply for FDA approval at the end of this year. 


Images from Shutterstock

The post ObsEva’s Oral Treatment for Uterine Fibroids Nails Phase III appeared first on Labiotech.eu.

Source: Labiotech

What blocks bird flu in human cells?

What blocks bird flu in human cells?
Normally, bird flu viruses do not spread easily from person to person. But if this does happen, it could trigger a pandemic. Researchers have now explained what makes the leap from animals to humans less likely.

Source: Sciencedaily

MIRM Manipal Biotech & Life Science Project Assistant Job Vacancy

MIRM Manipal Biotech & Life Science Project Assistant Job Vacancy
MIRM Manipal Jobs

MIRM Manipal Jobs – Project Assistant for Biological Sciences MSc/MPhil & MTech candidates with a background in Life Science & Biotechnology are requested to apply for Project Assistant position at MIRM, Manipal. MIRM, Manipal is hiring msc candidates for PA vacancy at MIRM, Manipal. Check out all of the details on the same below: This […]

The post MIRM Manipal Biotech & Life Science Project Assistant Job Vacancy appeared first on BioTecNika.


Source: Biotecnika

Perceptive allies with Garabedian on $210M early-stage fund

Perceptive allies with Garabedian on 0M early-stage fund
Perceptive Advisors is moving into early-stage biotech investments in partnership with ex-Sarepta Therapeutics CEO Chris Garabedian. The $210 million fund began life by leading a $17 million series A round in Quellis Biosciences, reflecting its plans to take the lead on early-stage investments.

Source: Fierce Biotech